Give Credit Where It’s Due
It’s important to cite your sources to ensure you don’t take credit for someone else’s work. Different standards exist, so use this page to find the major citation styles.
Different academic disciplines have different preferred styles, and some professors have their own standards. See the box below for the most common styles.
The MLA format, created by the Modern Language Association, is common in English and the humanities. Find the handbook at the library or explore the websites linked below to learn how to use this style in your papers.
This is one of the two most common styles you will use at the university.
The APA format, created by the American Psychological Association, is commonly used in the sciences. See the guide available at the library or check the websites linked below to learn how to use this style.
This is one of the two most common styles you will be expected to use at the university, so it a good idea to familiarize yourself with it.
The Chicago Manual of Style produced by the University of Chicago is widely used in the publishing industry. It is a common reference work not only for proper citations, but for all aspects of English grammar and style. Kate L. Turabian produced a modified version of this style that is also widely popular.
Most courses at NWOSU do not use Chicago or Turabian, but these resources are included here for your reference.
Helpful Chicago Manual of Style Websites
Helpful Turabian Website
This style, published jointly by several prestigious law journals, is used primarily by lawyers for citing legal documents such as court cases, dockets, statutes, or the U.S. Constitution. The APA format defers to the Bluebook for legal citations—in other words, to cite a legal document in APA format, you must use Bluebook style.
Helpful Bluebook Websites
Unfortunately, fewer simplified explanations or citation generators exist for the Bluebook than for other common styles. Nonetheless, the following resources are available:
- The Legal Information Institute has an extensive description of Bluebook citation, with examples.
- Gallagher Law Library has compiled a selection of Bluebook resources.
- LegalEase is an online citation generator for Bluebook. It is a paid service, but allows a free seven-day trial.
- Citation Machine generates Bluebook citations (this is a Chegg service and is therefore extremely ad-heavy).